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Action divine essay human in metaphysics theism
All rights reserved, published 2017, printed in the United States of America. Thus there can be no names for what exceeds the representable order; it is the dissimulation of this excess that gives us the illusory world of presence; and action divine essay human in metaphysics theism this unnamable sublimity, far from having any analogy among the. The gathering laying-out assembles all destining in itself, by bringing beings to us and letting them lie before us, keeping each being, whether absent or present, in its place and on its way, and by its assembling it secures all things in the all. Please note you've to add our email to approved e-mail addresses. Not, that is, that an alternative would have been desirable: Kant thus gained for subjectivity not only a mastery over the realm of the theoretical, but a supersensible freedom so profound that even the moral lawonce the exclusive.
Action divine essay human in metaphysics theism, akademik statistik
In short, nothing is said, of being or of God. One then sees that though the what it is of a thing is never commensurate to the surprising truth that it is, it is always good that this is this, and that this is (however sin and death. If this is so, though, then perhaps one could rewrite Heideggers genealogy of nihilism, preserving many of its features intact but casting it anew as the story of the persistent, polymorphous myth of metaphysical necessityits fabulous birth in the. The collection of essays in Alternative Concepts of God seeks to Instead, Drees thinks we should say that the divine is the ground of existence ( pp They claim that God is the love between human persons. Such questions are, by definition, questions of the transcendentals, and bespeak the Platonists servile fascination with the looks of things. It is for this reason also that theologys interruption of the history of nihilism was philosophys redemption, immeasurably deepening its openness to being and increasing the intensity of its highest ers. The Mirror of the Infinite: Gregory of Nyssa and the Vestigia Trinitatis. In 1957s Identit?t und Differenz, he takes two steps back from beings: the first is a step into the ontico-ontological difference, of which metaphysics is conscious, but only according to some generalized model of a characteristic proper.
Thus it is that theology alone preserves and clarifies all of philosophys most enchanting prospects upon being: precisely by detaching them from the mythology of grounds, and by resituating them within the space of this peaceful analogical interval between. From the high patristic period onward, Christian thought had developed an ontology of the infinite, which Aquinas perhaps brought to its most lucid Latin expression (though I am not a partisan among the various schools being is not reducible. Even those pieces that concern topics at something of a tangent from the broad main courses of my work touch, for the most part, on themes quite near my heart. Whence comes the is in it is possible? 2140 Oak Industrial Drive.E., Grand Rapids, Michigan 49505 m 2017 David Bentley Hart. It is an ontology with no horizon but beings, which can do no more than abstract from nature, violence, and transience to a dark, inexhaustible reservoir of ontic possibility, and to an inescapable process of coming to pass and passing away. Mavrodes, divine Conservation, Secondary Causes, and Occasionalism.
That said, he confines the concept of being to a finite economy of presencing that is nothing but the process of beingness, of becoming and passing away, and as a result his ontology remains a reflection only upon how beings appear within this economy. Evolution and the Human Person: The Pope in Dialogue Special Providence and Genetic Mutation: A New Defense of Theistic Evolution Speaking of a Personal God: An Essay in Philosophical Theology. Thus Christian philosophy is, at the end of the day, merely metaphysics once more, oblivious of the utter qualitative distinction between being and beings; and while metaphysics may illuminate the ontological difference for thought in some measure. Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive, no doubt, when the Christian universe was inverted and philosophy knew the exhilaration of breaking free from dependency upon Godeither the Christian God or his shadowy Cartesian surrogateto claim. It may be that loves appetite, excited by the beauty, sublimity, or simple existence of things, is uniquely able to press on to their wellspring, the supereminent plenitude of the transcendentals, where unity, beauty, goodness, truth, knowledge, and desire are convertible with one another. But this is precisely the dialectic that must remain an inert impossibility if the difference between possible and actual is not enfolded within a prior actuality.
Divine and, human, action : Essays
The problem this would seem to raise, though, is that of the immense epistemological caesura that one must of necessity tolerate between the attributive use of a word here below and its properly nominative use in regard. Remarks in Response to Father Lawrence Dewan. Omnipotence and Other Possibilities. Being must be thus: manifestation as obscuration, truth as duplicity, mission as errance. Title: The hidden and the manifest : essays in theology and metaphysics / David Bentley Hart. How is it that becoming is? This is not to deny that eternity has traditionally, in Western thinking, been regarded as an aspect of that which is other than all beings, but certain things must be kept in mind. As I have said, his early journey from phenomenology to ontology was made possible byand so was confined tophenomenologys collapse of any meaningful distinction between it is and it appears. It would be convenient, of course, if one could dissolve the verbthe mysterious to beinto its subject, but one cannot. The event of modernity within philosophy, after all, consisted for Christian thought in the death of a certain vision action divine essay human in metaphysics theism of being: it was the disintegration of that radiant unity where the good, the true, and the beautiful coincided as infinite simplicity.
Why, for instance, should the correct Stimmung prompting our investigations, and opening them to being, be that of anxiety, rather than of wonder, or even ers? In a sense he is right: systematic philosophy, as an independent enterprise of critical reason, has reached the point of collapse; Christian thoughts interruption and rescue of Western metaphysics has been followed by a revolt of reason whose ultimate. For one thing, Heideggers thought gives powerful expression to the deepest impulse of modern Continental philosophy in its interminable struggle to liberate itself from theology, and thus it is a particularly transparent instance of philosophy functioning as a theology evacuated of transcendence. Use of this site is subject to terms conditions. But if in this moment we reclaim the more essential truth of this nihilistic destinythat truth is not an object to be possessed, that the world is not reducible to the sufficient reason for its existence, that we should not. Heidegger calls being eschatological, but does so in a vein of etiolated Hegelianism, which leaves the words meaning suspended between the historical-dialectical and the existential. And I should record my thanks to my research assistant. I ask readers only to believe that everything intemperate herein is offered in a spirit of good humor, without malice and in full expectation of reciprocal action divine essay human in metaphysics theism treatment in kind, and any lack of proper restraint.
Divine and, human, action : Essays in the, metaphysics
And if the world is not a manifestation of necessity, but of gratuityeven if it must necessarily reflect in its intrinsic orderliness and concinnity the goodness of its sourcethen philosophy may be able to grasp many things. And it may also be that what discloses itself within this mood is beings inexhaustible self-outpouring in beings, an infinite act at once gathering all things together in transcendent peace and prismating its own infinite determinacy in the endless diversity. With this Christian interruption of metaphysics, every principle of necessity was made subordinate to the higher principle of grace. Heidegger obviously makes a vague gesture in the direction of this rather elementary impasse by distinguishing between the ontico-ontological difference and its event, but here too, unless this event is understood as the donation of being from a plenitude. I am much more comfortable now than I once was with an open avowal of a kind of Christian Platonism (with a few Aristotelian inflections) as the imprecise but satisfactory description of my metaphysical predilections. But Kant clearly knew that this is simply to ground the uncertifiable in the unascertainable. But it is just thisthe tragedy of being in its dispensationthat is the wellspring of philosophys power; for thought can move from the world to the worlds principles only in such measure as what is, is what must be; only. Ad Nihilum and Ex Nihilo If, as my argument implies, modern philosophys forgetfulness of being is nothing other than a forgetfulness of Christian thought, and if Heidegger is the first philosopher in whose work this forgetfulness has become. It makes perfect sense that his thought should thenas his late essays amply attestdissolve into a kind of Arcadian nostalgia, an almost Rousseauian yearning for the pure word that can speak the event in its immediacy, an innocent and pristine. And in constructing his genealogy of metaphysics as one continuous decline from philosophys first moment of ontological wakefulness to a final eclipse of being in the age of the world-picture, Heidegger succeeded in concealing from himself the most remarkable. Remarks in Response to Gianni Vattimo. It is a gaze that necessarily strives to pass beyond the ontic play of negativity and positivity, and so seesor expects to seehow ontic negation must be inverted, so as to reveal that it is the effect of a prior plenitude. Martin Lembke Religious Studies 48 (4 425 - 443.
Divine and, human Action : Essays in the Metaphysics of Theism by Thomas
To formulate the argument I want to make very simply: the forgetfulness of the difference between naming God and describing his attributes, characteristic of Western thought sincelet us sayat least the early modern period, is one and the same with the forgetfulness. After all, the special geniusor, at any rate, special charmof Heideggers thought is its recovery of a genuinely pagan vision of being: the muscular navet? of Heracleitus and Hesiod, but steeped in the lugubrious, effete, cosmopolitan fatalism of late antiquity and. This is obvious from the period of Sein und Zeit onward. Isbn 10:, iSBN 13:, file: mobi, 713. Heidegger sees the no-thing-ness of being not as an infinite purity from all limit, but as a mirror inversion of ontic presence in the ontic absence of past and future, and so he sees the withholding of being in beings. Phrased otherwise, the truth of being is poetic before it is rational (indeed, it is rational precisely because of its supreme poetic coherence and richness of detail and thus cannot be known truly if this order is reversed. Thus metaphysics must embrace, not merely as elements but as principles of being, all the tragic and negative aspects of existence: pain, ignorance, strife, alienation, death, action divine essay human in metaphysics theism the recalcitrance of matter, the inevitability of corruption and dissolution, and. A God whose very being is love, delight in the glory of his infinite Image, seen in the boundlessly lovely light of his Spirit, and whose works are then unnecessary but perfectly expressive signs of this delight, fashioned. Ultimately, Heidegger succeeds only at returning to an oblivion of being as profound as his own, the pre-Socratic inability to separate wonder at being from brutish awe before nature and fate, part and whole, becoming and totalitythat is, the pre-Platonic indistinction between being and sacrifice. This if, though, is precisely the question I want to raise: Is Heideggers ontology genuinely an alternativethe alternativeto onto-theology, or does Heidegger himself perhaps fail adequately to think the difference between being and beings, and so the difference between nomination and attribution? Thine Own of Thine Own: The Orthodox Understanding of Eucharistic Sacrifice. Truly he reigns over all things, and all things revolve around him who is their cause, their source, and their final end.
To clearly require that God does not also determine the humans ' actions. Even his tortuous meditations upon the Ereignis serve only to confirm the event of the world in its own immanence, its ontic process, and all the while the real question of being fails to be posed. Divine and, human Action : Essays in the, metaphysics of, theism, thomas. Richard Brian Davis. Every metaphysical ontology presumes that, in some way both primordial and ultimate, difference is violence, even (indeed, especially) when it is an ontology of the postmodern variety that thinks it has freed itself of the totalizing tendencies of onto-theology. No less than the Stoic image of the cosmos as a finite totality in which every form is continually displaced by another, the whole under the irresistible sway of anank, the later Heideggers understanding of the destinal epochality of beings temporality. If being is really, ontologically different from all beingseven if one grants that it is the ontic oscillation between existence and nonexistence that first wakens us to this differencethen being cannot be the opposite of anything;10 it stands over against neither. And, in this account of things, the theological understanding of the transcendence of being over beings appears as merely a particularly acute instance of a duality intrinsic to every metaphysics: like every speculative system, Christian philosophy is subordinate to that original.
Ereignis and Actus I should note, I suppose, that action divine essay human in metaphysics theism Heideggers purblindness is in some great degree willful, and even a little perverse. And no obscure conflation of being and the nothing will suffice to dispel philosophical perplexity here, as the question might just as well be phrased thus: What permits beings and nonbeing to be distinct from one another, such. Paradise Lost ; Christianity, modernity, and freedom; death, final judgment, and the meaning of life; and many more. Peter van Inwagen on Gratuitous Evil. Still, Heidegger may be somewhat correct in seeing, even in this openness, the inauguration of Western reasons long journey toward technological mastery as the highest ideal, toward instrumental control as the governing model of all truth, towardin shortnihilism. Ken Levy British Journal for the History of Philosophy 13 (4 627 674. To begin with, to say that, in distinguishing between becoming and being, metaphysics customarily treats becoming as a kind of nothingness is to say something simply false; it sounds like one of those silly slanders of Platonism for which.
Divine and Human Action : Essays in the Metaphysics of Theism - William
The latter ontology, it would then certainly seem, offers thought a more obvious and substantial form of analogy: a direct proportionate similitude between attributes inhering in discrete beings (albeit between finite and infinite instances thus. Granted, it is not always easy to follow Heideggers logic well enough to identify either its strengths or its flaws, especially in his earlier period, where it is often annoyingly difficult to assign any clear meaning. Rivalo, it gives us the potential to do something different, challenge the way that people behave and change. free* shipping on qualifying offers. Then again, I do not really believe that much of anything can be done without metaphysics, either explicit or implicit, and so the truly liberating future course for theology in that regard (and for every field.
I might have changed the texts to avoid redundancy, and so spared the reader the tedium of grimacing more than once at the same obnoxious formulations, but each essay has its own integrity, and there. Not to be too cavalier here, but I must observe that one could just as easily argue that being has always been characterized as altogether different from any number of thingslampshades, armchairs, clever ideas, lizards, passion fruitbut if these things are. After all, it is the synthesis within beings of what they are and that they are (and so of what they are not) that makes it impossible, within the grammar of ontic process, to speak properly of being qua being. This was Kants greatest triumph. because he wants so desperately to free the discourse of truth from the morbid mythology of grounds and of sufficient reason, which finds the truth of the world only in the worlds barest and most meager possibility or featureless. But being, for Heidegger, is an original alienation from form, the movement of an original not. Here it is best simply to remark that, in the case of Heidegger, there is a peculiar poignancy in the impossibility of his position: he is animated by a theological hunger, in the service of which he pursues an entirely unsustainable.
The Golden Age of Psychopathy: Mass Predation of an Abulic Modern
Howeverand there is a piquant irony in thisit is precisely Heideggers assiduous struggle to begin his project from a vantage pure of theology that ultimately renders his project incoherent, and in fact makes it impossible for him genuinely. Atheism is not the mirror inversion of this sort of theism, but both its inmost secret and its most necessary corrective. Open Theism has been a significant topic in philosophy of religion and in of the Open Theists ' relational view of God, in tension with their beliefs in divine impossibility. The Christian infinite is its own exteriority, without need of another, negative exteriority to bring it to fruition. None of which is to deny the brilliance of Heideggers diagnosis of nihilism; no one else ever laid out with such compelling clarity the pathology of modernity. If God is thought of in such termsif his true transcendence as the being of all beings is forgotten, hidden behind the imposing spectacle of a more conformable supreme beingthen the longing to know the truth. Why should the inward retreat of anxiety command our assent more forcefully than the outward abandon of desire? Following Nietzsche, he reads the history of nihilism as the story of the Western will to positive truth, which mustbefore it can be transcendedexhaust itself, and so bring metaphysics to its ultimate collapse. Even if, in the realm of the ontic, the possible is in some sense the fountainhead of the actual, this obviously finite order still must be conceptually inverted (which involves an appeal to the infinite).
The Encounter between Eastern Orthodoxy and Radical Orthodoxy: A Brief Foreword. For Heidegger the truth of an apple (say) lies not in the metaphysical principles that secure it within the rationality of being, but in the event of the apple in its appearing, in all the richness and poverty of its. Other ancient schools of thought were generally less precocious in their advances toward Christian theology. And what it gives is the process of altheia, or physis, the surging-up and whiling of beings in the juncture of the event. In such a God, beauty and the infinite entirely coincide; the very life of God is one of, so to speak, infinite form; and when he creates, the difference between worldly beauty and the divine beauty it reflects subsists. The most radically anti-idealist thinkers, from Nietzsche to Derrida, tend to possess an inflexible conviction that being is finite; that what is must be; that death is the possibility of life, and absence is the possibility of presence;. Classification: LCC BT40.H DDC 230dc23. More to the point here, however, our question is worth asking simply because Heideggers thought is very much concerned with naming (with the poetic logos, in which the silence of being peals forth, veiled in its very unveiling.
What Heidegger calls Anwesen consists, necessarily, in a dialectic between this and not thisbetween what is and all that might be, that has been, that will be, all that is concealed, potential, and that is not. To take the most striking example: it may be true that anxiety apprises us that all things are set off against the nothing, but to cross from what is after all a simple recognition of ontic contingency to any conclusion. All of this is well essays involve philosophical engagement at least implicitly, insofar as they utilize 1 yaz görüntüleniyor (toplam 1). And this event, as Logos, occurs for us in language, and then in the thoughtful hearing of languages gathering saying of the worlds worldingas is nowhere more powerfully expressed than in the almost incantatory conclusion of Brief?ber. Wakefulness to transcendence had to be replaced by the clear-eyed disenchantment of a controlling scrutiny. And becoming is no exception to this rule: it refers to the ontic how of finite existence, which means it cannot refer, of itself, to the ontological that of existence. What matters most is not what he rejectssay, an ontology of infinite actuality that he simply does not understandbut what he is moved, in consequence, to embrace. Stoicism, for instance, however magnificent, humane, and sophisticated it was in its most developed forms, was still somewhat retrograde in this regard, and was bound to a vision of the cosmos as a fated economy of placement and displacement, and. Metaphysical poetry discuss the uses of metaphors. Using this tool, each of us can add tremendous worth to our organizations and to our lives by eliminating blame, victim-thinking, and procrastination. However, again because his move is the final reactive agitation of a revolt, the thought of being available to him is still nihilistic, still a finite ontic economy, stripped even of the soothing mirages of modern metaphysics: Geist, ego, positivity, etc.
The Hidden and the Manifest: Essays in Theology and Metaphysics
In some sense, I want to endorse Vattimos talk of the violence of metaphysics (though not quite in his apocalyptically dramatic terms Western philosophy has never, insofar as it has functioned as a self-sufficient discipline distinct from. Description: Grand Rapids : Eerdmans Publishing., 2017. Ed., Divine and Human Action : Essays in the Metaphysics of Theism (Ithaca, NY: The main theological subject in this thesis however is divine action. And would it not be wise then at least to seek another kind of speaking, one that is neither simple metaphysical attribution nor simple saying, but a language that can name the difference between being and beings in a movement. In every case, it is the is of the thingwhether it be becoming, a lampshade, a clever idea, or what have youthat proves irreducible to the thing. And, having thus failed to think his way toward beings real difference from beings, Heidegger accomplishes nothing by differentiating the Ereignis infinitely from all being but to confirmthrough negationthe totality in its finitude. Impassibility as Transcendence: On the Infinite Innocence of God. But it was Nietzsche who first argued that the death of God has come about as the result of the Christian (which is to say the vulgar Platonic) will to power, that pitiless, ascetic, ultimately life-denying hunger for absolute. Western thought had attempted to rise from this superstitious subjugation to the worlds mere event: Plato and Aristotle, however imperfectly, were both shaken by that effulgent moment of wonder that can free reflection from mere animal dread; perhaps the. However, no less than Nietzsche, Heidegger was a creature of the history he sought to understand, to retrieve, and in a sense to conclude: coming when he did, in the dying twilight of Western philosophys long, sedulous suppression. All of which has an undeniable charm about it; but it is at just this point that one should pause and ask whether the sweet, melancholy quietism in such language does not dissemble a certain kind of metaphysical ambition. It may seem that, in turning away from Heideggers ontology only to retreat to so antique and metaphysical a redoubt, I am behaving rather like a French soldier action divine essay human in metaphysics theism fleeing to the shelter of the Maginot Line after the German.
No Shadow of Turning: On Divine Impassibility. Rather, indeed, it is this approach to ontology alone that makes it possible to conceive of the distinction between being and beings as something other than an ontic economy. What Hegel could not tolerate was the notion either of a God who possesses in himself difference, determinacy, plenitude, and perfection independent of any world, or of a world thus left devoid of meaning in the ultimate speculative. And so Kant was more or less compelled to ground the circle of knowledge in a transcendental capacity behind empirical subjectivity, the transcendental unity of apperception that accompanies all the representations available to the empirical ego; this was, manifestly. Then, over this entire dialectic of existence and nonexistence, he erects an arch of fate, of a destining that apportions finite things to their placement and displacement in a cycle of interminable immanence,24 and so confirms beings in their potentiality. This, though, is the fate of every metaphysics action divine essay human in metaphysics theism (at least, according to Heidegger in that it considers the ontological difference from the vantage of the ontic, it can do no other than arrive at (in the univocal sense) a cause.
Omniscience (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
There simply is no such God. It was Christianitys rescue of the worlds light from the myth of necessity that forced philosophy to take the transcendental turn; and Christianitys story of transcendent freedom made possible its own distorted reflection in a discourse of truth premised upon the subjects. Such a view of things certainly attests to a quite earnest desire to free thought from the destructive passion of instrumental reason, in order to return philosophical reflection to a condition of peaceful dwelling in the givenness. 4 extends this functionalist line of thought to concepts of divine action, resources of contemporary analytic philosophy, particularly in the areas. The ontologically erotic gaze that loves and desires being is more attentive to what constitutes or en-acts the seen than is an anxious awareness of the nothingness that shyly hides itself behind the seen; love sees each things fortuity, its. Hence, it is perfectly legitimate for us to return to his earlier point of departure and ask whether phenomenological rigor really ever required of him that he abandon a transcendent ontology, or that he remain fixed in the difference between. Heidegger chooses the latter course, but one should not be deceived that in doing so he is fleeing the metaphysical and embracing the scientific. The Hidden and the Manifest: Metaphysics after Nicaea. A moral argument for God's existence in recent philosophy is found in David. This could be accomplished only by way of an initial refusal of the worlds alluring and terrifying immediacy; through a simple but peremptory act of rejection, the order of truth could be inverted, moving truth from the.
Hegel was willing to surrender some real measure of the isolated egos independence because he was engaged in the near impossible task of bringing under speculative control the radical contingency that Christian theology had introduced into the absolute, andmorein. This is never truly Heideggers question; and one passage in Anaximander seems to me perfectly to express why it cannot be: Whatever has its essence in arrival and departure we would like to call becoming and perishing, which. Some theistic philosophers, however, are We saw at the outset of this essay that one of the Jun 12, 2014 Theoretical Moral Arguments for God's Existence and Divine Command In response some would argue action divine essay human in metaphysics theism that even if theistic belief is not grounded. The mystery is hidden from view behind the splendid machinery and intricate hierarchies of rigid presence, substance, structure; the givenness of beings in their Anwesentheir arrival, their tremulous whiling, their passing away again into concealmentgoes unremarked in its self-effacing silence. But the Platonic ers for the beautiful, good, and true was also a longing for something more than mere grounds; it was a desire for beings fullness, though one not yet able to understand being as gift. One might wish to ask how it is that all things are unities within change, how order and thought and beauty are one and yet distinct, how the world and perception are inseparably joined in a circle. And surely no theologian can take exception to Heideggers desire to free philosophy from the arid, and ultimately nihilistic, reduction of truth to sufficient reason or positive ground. The Offering of Names: Metaphysics, Nihilism, and Analogy. For this reason, Heidegger claims that we must begin the thinking of being anew, not merely from the vantage of the difference, but from the vantage of the event of the difference.
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Russell Disilvestro Christian Bioethics 21 (3 262-281. He is all in all. Such would be, obviously, a subversion of the Heideggerean tale, but not an absolute rejection; it might, in fact, make the story more coherent. All rights reserved by The PhilPapers Foundation Page generated Mon May 27 04:42:17 2019 on pp1. Here the search for truth as a positive possession of reasona thing among the things of the worldtakes hold of reason, and here the history of metaphysics is inaugurated in earnest, andno matter what new concept will displace eidos (ousia. This is the moment of highest risk. Represent a lack of personal accountability. Surely it is more correct to say that the problem of philosophy has always been that of the synthesis of nothingness and essence within becoming, the persistence of unity within change, and soquite logicallyWestern metaphysics has traditionally recognized that. Within such an ontology, obviously, certain issues cannot be raised: the baffling truth that every this is this on account of that transfinite unity that shows itself in every thing, every part of every thing, and every series. However well a pure metaphysics may be able to conceive of ontological dependency, it can never, by its own lights, arrive at the thought of true contingency. The simple opposition of is and is not, understood as the simple functioning of noncontradiction action divine essay human in metaphysics theism within finite things, is not an ontological determination, but is merely what raises the ontological question in the first place.
Obviously, at the level of the ontic, the possible is always in excess of whatever is, in any moment, actual; but, once again, this merely restates the problem. In fact, the seventh essay collected here was written as a kind of distillation and reconsideration of various aspects of the essays that precede it in these pages. Its every mittence is, as Heidegger says, an errance; it gives light only by being dark, by hiding and leading astray; as much as truth is a peaceful letting-be-manifest, it is also a struggle of obscurity and light. In fact, I really cannot imagine an alternative metaphysics for theology that does not ultimately collapse under the weight of its own contradictions; and I certainly have no patience for the dangerous fantasy that theology could or should be done without metaphysics. Is Descartes a Temporal Atomist? Attributes and Names I want, in what follows,1 to ruminate on the principal issue Janet Soskice raises in her essay:2 that is, her elegant distinction between the theological enunciation of the divine names and the philosophical enumeration of the attributes of deity. Quinn, divine Necessity and Divine Goodness.