(He is often credited with inventing the names for parabola, hyperbola and ellipse; but these shapes were previously described by Menaechmus, and their names may also predate Apollonius.) Although astronomers…Read more
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Essay on cockroach in hindi
Habit and Habitat of Cockroach. The colleterial glands lie behind and above the ovaries. It is believed that the products released by the corpora cardiacum increase the effects of prothoracic glands. The number of coagulocytes varies and the nuclei are large and round. These cells act as storehouse of reserve food which remain in the form of glycogen and are used during starvation. The product which is secreted is called Periplanetin. It is formed by the fusion of six segments which have lost their external demarcations.
Essay on Cockroach - Biology Discussion
Each gland consists of two leaf-like diffused lobes and a reservoir. Group Analysis of Two Poems Sharing the Same Topic: Cockroaches Morley in his poem Nursery Rhymes for the Tenderhearted and Wild in his poem entitled Roaches constitute two distinct tones through their use of imagery and perspective. These tubules give a mushroom appearance and form the mushroom gland or utricular gland. The wings are exoskeletal modifications. The ileum leads to colon, which is broad and slightly coiled. Food requires nearly 33 hours traveling the entire length of the alimentary canal. Mouth parts or trophi: advertisements: The mouth parts (Fig.
Essay on Cockroach: Digestive System and Respiratory System
Sub-oesophageal ganglion: This ganglion is present in the mid-ventral region of the head and just ventral to the oesophagus. The outer part of this gland is composed of large glandular cells and the inner part is made essay on cockroach in hindi up of small cells with unusually large nuclei. Cognition, the Feasibility of Malunggay Extract (Moringa Oleifera). Its dorsal side is hard but ventral side is soft and is known as the epipharynx. Zone 4: This is the longest region where oocytes are arranged in a single line.
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The diameter of each hepatic caecum is nearly 1/3rd of the midgut and histologically it resembles the midgut. The members of two sexes may be identified on the basis of their morphological features (Table.3). (b) Ocellus: This is also known as simple eye. The wall T5f the crop is composed of epithelial layer, circular and longitudial muscle layers. Alimentary Canal : The alimentary canal is about.7 cm in length. Within the body of the female the sperms remain temporarily stored within spermathecae. The name and distribution of different peripheral nerves which are given from the brain and sub-oesophageal ganglia are shown in the enclosed table (Table.2Arthropoda). They are called nymphs. The outer layer disintegrates and becomes melanised. (a) Compound eyes: The position and appearance of the compound eye have already been stated. The plasma material around them precipitates essay on cockroach in hindi and the entire island dries up to become hard and ultimately black.
Background of the Study In our society today their are lots of people who are trying to find out how to kill dirty insects in their house one of this example is the cockroach. Beneath the joints there are soft pads, called plantulae. At the time of wound healing, the haemocytes move essay on cockroach in hindi towards the injured site and form a clot. Distal parts of tubules are secretory, that pours nitrogenous urates of K, Na in solution into the lumen of tubules through osmosis where uric acid precipitates as crystals. The secretory lobes, reservoirs and their ducts together constitute the salivary apparatus (Fig. Male gonapophyses or phallomers: A reproductive (genital) pouch is formed near the ventral of the ninth and dorsal side of the tenth segments. Each ganglion consists of a bilobed protocerebrum, a deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum. Advertisements: The word Periplaneta (Gk. The ostia allow the blood to enter into the lumen of the heart from pericardial cavity. Each dorsal and ventral tracheal trunk originates from a trachea given by first abdominal spiracle and extends up to a segmental branch from eighth abdominal spiracle. These are called hygroreceptors. It is divisible into three distinct regions: (1) Fore gut, (2) Mid gut and (3) Hind gut.
The lobes of essay on cockroach in hindi the salivary gland open within the reservoir. The left gland is larger and opaque while the right one is smaller and transparent. Testes: A pair of three lobed small, white structures situated in the lateral side of the abdominal cavity beneath the terga of fourth and fifth abdominal segments. This sclerite also extends laterally. The histology of heart muscles exhibits the presence of intercalated discs in between the muscle cells, a plasma-lemma having intimate connection with endoplasmic reticulum and complex mitochondria between the myofilaments. The internal lining of the midgut and the hepatic caeca also produce digestive juices. According to the work of Jones, there are only two types of haemocytes in Periplaneta americana. The extended parts of all alary muscles form dorsal perforated diaphragm which divides the perivisceral cavity into the dorsal pericardial sinus and ventral perivisceral sinus or haemocoel surrounding the gut. Circum-oesophageal connectives: These are short and broad, paired nerves which originate one from each supra- oesophageal ganglion and encircle the oesophagus to unite with the sub-oesophageal ganglion. The electron microscopic studies have revealed that the cells of corpora cardiaca have profuse endoplasmic reticulum and prominent secretory granules of 600 nm in diameter. Each egg is centrolecithal,.e., bulk of yolk is confined to the central part of the egg. Its anterior end is broader and taper posteriorly.
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The external surface is essay on cockroach in hindi marked with several polygonal facets, each of which denotes a single visual unitommatidium. The central part of the gland is occupied by a cavity which traverses within the inner wall. Residual matter is temporarily stored in the rectum and are periodically rejected through the anus. (b) Antenna: A pair of thread-like elongated antennae is present in the antero-medial indentation of the eyes. The posterior end of the abdomen in a male cockroach also exhibits specialisation. A loose network of muscle cells is present on the outer wall of the midgut. Conglobate gland or phallic: A long, flat multi-lobed sac-like structure is situated beneath the ejaculatory duct, called conglobate gland or phallic. Three types of haemocytes are known in cockroach Prohaemocytes, Transitional haemocytes and Large haemocytes. These bristles and hairs are responsible for the perception of smell.
The wall of the gut contains an outer coat of circular muscles and an inner coat of longitudinal muscles. Each lateral longitudinal trunk is divisible into two partsthe anterior part is present between mesothoracic, metathoracic and first abdominal spiracle, and the posterior part extends from second abdominal spiracle to eighth abdominal spiracle. The mitochondira are arranged on the opposite sides of the I-bands. The basal tip of cardo bears a condyle for articulating with the exoskeleton of the head. The other visceral muscle of heart is a thin circular layer around heart with distinct nuclei. Female reproductive system: The female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries, oviducts, colleterial glands, essay on cockroach in hindi spermathecae, gonapophyses and female gonopore. The pairing continues for an hour. The dorsal and ventral longitudinal trunks are present near the middle line and the lateral longitudinal trunk is present on the lateral side of the abdominal cavity. According to another view, air flows in and out through all the spiracles and probably there is no direct circulation of air along the longitudinal tracheal trunks. (b) Campaniform stress receptors: They are present as thick ridges on the segments of the leg, on the labial palps and its adjoining areas. Each ovary is made up of eight beaded tube-like ovarioles. Each spiracle is bounded by an annular sclerite, called peritreme, having a filtering apparatus formed by the bristles to eliminate dust particles from the inflowing air.
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The air reaches up to the intercellular spaces through the tracheoles. The distal end has smallest oocyte and the largest one remains at the proximal end. Mechanism of excretion: Functionally the Malpighian tubules are concerned with the removal of waste products of metabolism from the haemolymph. The oesophagus extends up to the prothorax and is followed by the crop. The first pair of spiracles is the largest and is present on the mesothorax. The external surface of the eye is covered by a transparent cuticle. It extends anteriorly to cover the head and posteriorly to shield the mesothorax. A transverse line above the pointed apex of the scutellum divides the sclerite into an anterior and a posterior part. (5) Tarsus: This is the distal part of the leg.
The lining of midgut and hepatic caeca act both as secretory and absorbtive areas. Feeding and Digestion : Food: The cockroach is a macrophagous and omnivorous creature. The cockroaches can close all the spiracles and may suspend its respiratory activity for a considerable period of time. Mechanism of respiration: During intake of air (inspiration) the abdominal muscles relax to open the anterior four pairs of spiracles, through which air rushes. The lumen of trachea is often seen to be filled up with a substance of unknown nature. Essay on the Respiratory System of Cockroach : The respiration in cockroach is aerial. Essay on the External Structures of Cockroach. It is lined internally by cuticle and includes the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, crop and gizzard. In females, keel-like ovipositor valves are present. The spermathecal apertures open within the posterior projection of median sclerite and vulva or female gonopore is present on the ventral side of the two basisternites. Each cell is 9-18 m in diameter and is phagocytic in nature. All the three tagmata are enclosed by exoskeletal essay on cockroach in hindi coverings. Glucose is absorbed by the caeca.
After coming out, the young eats the egg membrane. The urine which is produced in the tubules passes into the hindgut where the composition of urine is modified. Each cell has a nucleus with distinct nucleolus and a network of chromatin material. It influences the secretions of secondary sexual organs in both the sexes. Essay on the Geographical Distribution of Cockroach. The plasma precipitates around the haemocytes to form islands of coagulated bodies. The opening of the pouch is provided with three pairs of chitinous rods, called the gonapophyses. The posterior larger portion is called oothecal chamber or vestibulum within which oothecae are formed. The salivary duct opens within the pharynx near the base of hypopharynx. The rate of hatching is 63 and the young takes five minutes time to come out of the inflated ootheca. The head capsule includes: (1) A pair of epicranial plates or occipital sclerites, covering dorsal essay on cockroach in hindi and posterior parts; advertisements: (2) A single piece formed by the fusion of two exoskeletons, frons (which lies below the vertex clypeus (ventral.
With the first pair the ventral nerve cord communicates. These cells are separated by a slender axial essay on cockroach in hindi canal. Essay on the Nervous System of Cockroach. Essay on the Endocrine System of Cockroach : The body of cockroach contains following endocrine organs corpora cardiaca, corpora allata, prothoracic gland and cervical glands. The rest of the space is occupied by the digestive, excretory and reproductive organs. This was possible through its travelling by ships. (iv) Hypopharynx: This fleshy central part is bounded dorsally by mandibles, ventrally by the labium and laterally by maxillae. Muscular system : The muscles of cockroach may be classified into two broad groupsskeletal muscles and visceral muscles. Morleys tone toward roaches is whimsical while Wilds attitude is bleak. Essay on the Reproductive System of Cockroach. In each thoracic segment it bears a prominent ganglion and in the abdomen there are six abdominal ganglia.
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The nymphs undergo several moultings. (v) Labrum: It articulates with the distal end of clypeus in the head region. Ventrally, the corpora cardiaca essay on cockroach in hindi are connected with a rudimentary ganglion and are drawn posteriorly to connect the corpora allata. Colleterial glands: A pair of branched tubular glands, called colleterial glands, opens on the dorsal side of the female gonopore. This polymer layer is coated externally by a substance, called amphion, which is formed by a combination of wax and cement. The function is still not known. The word cockroach has probably originated from the name of a Spanish fruit, cucaracha, having disagreeable taste. The heart is enclosed with a pericardial sinus, the wall of which has segmented, triangular wing-like bundles of muscles, called alary muscles (Fig. The circulatory system consists of blood or haemolymph, heart and aorta. These openings are present one pair in each segment on the ventro-lateral sides of the heart.
The most important heart muscles are fan-shaped alary muscles. It prefers dark warm corners of kitchens, godowns, underground drains and places where food and humid atmosphere are available. The youngs resemble the adults but are soft, white and without gonads and wings. It maintains the juvenile features in the larval stage. The passage of food from the crop to the gizzard depends upon the ingested fluid. The opening and closure of the spiracles depend upon the carbon dioxide concentration. This gland is richly supplied with trachea. 18.52) consists of following parts: (1) Coxa: Proximal part of the leg which is broad and flat.
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A few haemocytes form a capsule around them. Retrieved 13:07, May 21, 2019, from. Thus only mosaic type of image formation occurs. The junction of the midgut and the hindguts is marked externally by the presence of numerous threads called Malpighian tubules which are excretory organs. A large membrane connects the head with the thorax. The exoskeletal covering of the head is called the head capsule and the top of the head capsule is called vertex.
The two spermathecae open within the genital pouch on a small spermathecal papilla through an independent median aperture on the ninth segment. This is a mechanism which maintains the osmoregulation of haemolymph. Recently the light detecting ability of these structures has been proved. Essay on the External Structures of Cockroach : The body is dorso-ventrally flattened, elongated and reddish-brown in colour. In this way water and bicarbonates are used again essay on cockroach in hindi and again.